How long batteries last for depends on many factors. Factors such as battery size, temperature, load, surface friction, caster or wheel resistance, slope, speed, constant speed or repeated acceleration and de-acceleration, motor energy consumption, etc. Generally, you want to follow the battery manufacturer recommendations on draw-down or consumption of available full Ah capacity before recharging to get the stated life out of the battery. Some battery types have different recommended maximum draw-down before recharging. AGM type has recommendations that you don’t use more than 50% or 60% of available full Ah capacity before recharging. With Lithium-ion you can draw down up to 80% or 90% before recharging. Wet cells, as in our Motive batteries, allow you to draw down to 80% before recharging. Some batteries allow partial charging between uses or fast charging to extend the time batteries last, such as Lithium-ion and forklift style flooded cells with the correct type of charger.
On our waste tug page, we mention our load mover tugs can last between 2.5 hours to 9 hours or more of continuous use, depending on all the factors stated in this answer.
Very hot temperatures will affect both the life of most battery types and cause the voltage level to drop off much quicker. Here is a good study on the effect of heat on battery voltage: US study of heat effect on batteries We offer and recommend optional batteries with wider operating temperature ranges and higher capacity when you are in very hot or cold climates.
Currently, our selection of batteries ranges from 2x12V (24 Volt) 25.5 Ah to 2x24V (48 Volt) 420 Ah or 21.5kWh. The larger optional capacity batteries, motive batteries, and Lithium-ion offer higher voltage and higher sustained voltage which are best for our tugs and will last longer. Most likely our tug that lasts the longest on a single charge would be the XXL with 420 Ah Lithium-ion.
If you provide us with all the details for your particular use, we can estimate the time our tugs will operate for on a full-charged battery and recommend options you have if you need it to last longer.